Coal Te Ara Encyclopedia Of New Zealand

Coal resources – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

The distinctive nature of New Zealand coal. New Zealand coals have characteristics that distinguish them from coals found in other countries. Most of the world’s coals were formed in great swamps during the Carboniferous period, about 300–350 million years ago. New Zealand coals are much younger, having been formed mainly in the late Cretaceous and Tertiary periods, 30–70 million years ago, from more …

Coal and coal gas – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

Coal was converted into a gas used for lighting, heating and cooking. Known as ‘coal gas’ or ‘town gas’, it was widely used in England and Europe, so it was a familiar fuel to many settlers. In New Zealand it was provided by local authorities and private companies from the 1860s on. By 1916 there were gasworks in 56 cities and towns.

Grey coal towns – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

Thomas Brunner discovered a coal seam on the north side of the Brunner gorge in 1847, and mining started there in 1864. As coal mining expanded, the mining settlement spread across the hillside opposite the mine, with other communities at Wallsend, Taylorville and Dobson, a few kilometres downstream where there was more space. The mine steadily produced coal for over 40 years.

Buller coal towns – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

A small, almost abandoned coal town, 27 km north-east of Westport. It was named after R. B. Denniston, manager of the first major mine to open in the 1870s and later a director of the Westport Coal Company. On a bare plateau at an altitude of 600 metres, Denniston was the bleakest of the coal mining towns, often shrouded in fog. The nearby town of Burnetts Face was squashed into a narrow valley, close to …

The 20th century – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

From 1900 to 1914 New Zealand coal production more than doubled to 2.25 million tonnes, a figure it would not consistently exceed until the Second World War. This dramatic increase was due to the demands of steamships and railways, the export-driven growth of dairy factories and freezing works, and the development of municipal gas works that burnt coal to produce domestic gas. The most ...

Mining community – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

Several New Zealand novels have evoked the experience of coal mining – Bill Pearson’s Coal flat (1963), Eric Beardsley’s Blackball 08 (1984), and Jenny Pattrick’s The Denniston rose (2003). Mervyn Thompson’s one-man play Coaltown blues , which he performed 114 times between 1984 and 1988, depicts growing up in a West Coast mining community.

Types of coal – Coal and coal mining – Te Ara …

These six examples of New Zealand coal show how the appearance of coal changes with its rank. The two examples on the right are of low rank, with considerable moisture, relatively little carbon, and are dull. The bottom right, from Waimamaku Beach in Northland, contains a fossilised broadleaf. The top right is lignite, also from Northland. The example at bottom centre is sub-bituminous coal ...

Coal and coal mining – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New …

Coal is a rock that can burn, and it is made from carbon, water and minerals. It was formed millions of years ago when plants fell into peat swamps and were buried by heavy earth and rocks. Over a very long time, the weight of the rocks and heat in the ground turned the plants into coal.

The nature of coal – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

Coal is a combustible rock formed from the altered remains of ancient vegetation laid down in peat swamps. It is mainly composed of organic matter (compounds of carbon), moisture and minerals. The transition from peat to coal (coalification) occurs over millions of years as peat is buried and consolidated by the weight of overlying sediments.

The future of coal – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

In 2005 coal contributed about 10% of New Zealand‘s electricity supply and 12% of its primary energy supply. It seems likely these proportions will increase. The environmental obstacles to new large-scale geothermal and hydro development schemes, the high cost of other renewable energy sources and imported oil, and the failure to discover large new gas fields in New Zealand make coal a major ...

Rank of coal – Coal and coal mining – Te Ara Encyclopedia ...

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From coal to oil – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

After the First World War New Zealand’s shipping lines rebuilt their fleets to replace those sunk during the war. The first batch of ships was characterised by plain, no-nonsense coal burners such as the Kent of 1918. At 8,697 tons and 14 knots, she was a massive floating freezer. ...

Search Te Ara – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

Browse the Encyclopedia. Stories A-Z Te Reo Māori Biographies Sections Keywords Your stories. Te Ara Home › Search Te Ara; Search results. Te Ara stories 12 results; Images & media 10 results; Dictionary of New Zealand Biography 154 results; 1966 0 results; Other Ministry sites 10 results; Buller coal towns. Following the discovery of high-quality bituminous coal at Burnetts Face in 1860 ...

Offloading coal – Coal and coal mining – Te Ara ...

Much of the West Coast coal, whether from Greymouth or Westport, travelled across Cook Strait to Wellington. Then it was often transferred to the railway and sent to other parts of the North Island or loaded into wagons, as shown in this 1910 photograph, to be taken to heat homes or provide gas ...

10. External links and sources – Coal and coal mining – Te ...

GNS Science: New Zealand's Coal Deposits. GNS Science, Te Pū Ao, provides scientific information about New Zealand's natural earth systems and processes, such as coal formation and deposits. IEA Clean Coal Centre. The International Energy Agency Clean Coal Centre is the world's foremost provider of information on the sustainable use of coal. New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals: Coal. This site ...

Mining in New Zealand - Wikipedia

New Zealand Coal Production, 1878 - 2014. Coal mining produced almost 4 million tonnes of coal in 2014, of which 44% was exported. In 2016 it was down to 2,834,956 tonnes. New Zealand coal reserves are in excess of 15 billion tonnes, mainly in Waikato, Taranaki, West Coast, Otago and Southland.

Gas stoves – Coal and coal mining – Te Ara Encyclopedia …

In this photograph of a Christchurch kitchen about 1915, two gas stoves are available for the cook, using gas produced from bituminous coal. From the turn of the 20th century until the First World War, coal production more than doubled in New Zealand. Part of the demand came from town gas works, which supplied households with coal gas for cooking and heating. At this time, most of New Zealand ...

Offloading coal – Coal and coal mining – Te Ara ...

Much of the West Coast coal, whether from Greymouth or Westport, travelled across Cook Strait to Wellington. Then it was often transferred to the railway and sent to other parts of the North Island or loaded into wagons, as shown in this 1910 photograph, to be taken to heat homes or provide gas ...

10. External links and sources – Coal and coal mining – Te ...

GNS Science: New Zealand's Coal Deposits. GNS Science, Te Pū Ao, provides scientific information about New Zealand's natural earth systems and processes, such as coal formation and deposits. IEA Clean Coal Centre. The International Energy Agency Clean Coal Centre is the world's foremost provider of information on the sustainable use of coal. New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals: Coal. This site ...

The Coal Sack – Southern Cross – Te Ara Encyclopedia of ...

The Coal Sack is a dark region to one side of the Southern Cross. To the naked eye it looks like a hole in the Milky Way. The Coal Sack is a region of gas and dust, known as a dark nebula, which obscures light from the stars behind it.

Loading coal – Economy and the environment – Te Ara ...

A bucket excavator loads coal onto a truck at a West Coast mine in 1948. At this time coal was used to power steam trains. By the late 1940s state-owned mines were producing over half of New Zealand’s coal. In 1948 coal deposits were nationalised, although this was quickly reversed by the National...

Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand | Ministry for ...

Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand has been built by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage Manat ū Taonga over the last 12 years. It is a comprehensive guide to the country’s peoples, natural environment, history, culture, economy, institutions and society. Te Ara has been developed in themes; Māori New Zealanders and New Zealand Peoples (the arrival and settlement of the people ...

Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand - Home | …

Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 7,614 likes · 58 talking about this. Te Ara is a comprehensive guide to the country’s peoples, natural environment, history, …

Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand - Wikipedia

Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand is an online encyclopedia established in 2001 by the New Zealand Government's Ministry for Culture and Heritage. The web-based content was developed in stages over the next several years; the first sections were published in 2005, and the last in 2014 marking its completion. Te Ara means "the pathway" in the Māori language, and contains over three ...

Early explorers – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

When coal was discovered at Tākaka in 1842, it became Coal Bay, and after gold was discovered at Aorere in 1857 the name changed to Golden Bay, which most people today imagine, incorrectly, refers to the colour of its sand. Tasman. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who sailed along part of the west coast of New Zealand, named relatively few places: Murderers Bay because of a fracas where lives were ...

Geology of the Northland Region - Wikipedia

New Zealand's Northland Region is built upon a basement consisting mainly of greywacke rocks, which are exposed on the eastern side of the peninsula. In-place Eocene coal measures crop out at Kamo, near Whangarei, and Oligocene limestone crops out at Hikurangi, near Whangarei.. A subduction zone is believed to have existed to the northeast of Northland in early Miocene times, causing the ...

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